Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose or sugar is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat.
Diabetes is a lifestyle disease, it can be reversed by changing a few of our lifestyle habits. 
Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas which carries blood glucose molecules into the cells to be used for energy production.
Energy is needed to work.
Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose. Absence or insufficient production of insulin or the inability of the body to properly use insulin causes diabetes. Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
Symptoms of diabetes
  1. Increased thirst and urination
  2. increased hunger
  3. Fatigue
  4. Blurred vision
  5. Numbness or tingling in the feet or hand
  6. Sores that do not heal
  7. Unexplained weight loss
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
Gestational diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
Your body does not make insulin, your immune system attacks and destroys the pancreatic cells producing insulin.
This type of diabetes is mainly seen in children, and young adults. it may appear at any age.
People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive.
Type 2 Diabetes
In this case, the body does not make insulin or use insulin well. It can develop at any age even during childhood.
However this type of diabetes occurs mostly in middle-aged and older people.
Gestational diabetes
Develops in pregnant women and it goes away after delivery. There are chances to develop type-2 diabetes afterward.
Who is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes
  1. If your age is 45 or older
  2. have a family history of diabetes
  3. you are overweight or obese
  4. physically less active or having sedentary life
  5. high blood pressure also affect your chance of developing type 2 diabetes, if you are prediabetic
  6. had gestational diabetes
Causes Of Diabetes
  1. Overweight or obese
    Obesity causes insulin resistance. 
    Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body produces insulin but does not use it effectively. Glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by the cells causing high sugar levels in the blood which causes Type 2 Diabetes. In this condition muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin well. As a result, the body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. At first, the pancreas starts secreting more insulin to keep up with the added demand. Overtime pancreas gets tired and blood glucose level rises
  2. Genetic Mutation
    Monogenic diabetes i.e. change in a single gene due to mutation. 
    These changes are inherited. Sometimes Gene mutation happens on its own. This mutation causes diabetes by making the pancreas inefficient to make insulin. Neonatal diabetes is caused by a genetic mutation. It occurs in the first six months of life. Maturity onset diabetes (MODY) is diagnosed during adolescence, but sometimes the disease is not diagnosed until later in life
  3. Cystic Fibrosis-This type of diabetes can be managed successfully. Thick mucus is produced which causes scarring in the pancreas. This scarring can prevent the pancreas from making enough insulin. 
  4. Hemochromatosis- It causes the body to store too much iron. If the disease is not treated, iron can build up and damage the pancreas and other organs. 
  5. Hormonal diseases- It causes the body to produce too much of certain hormones which sometimes causes insulin resistance and diabetes
  • Cushioning syndrome- it occurs when the body produces too much Cortisol often called the stress hormone it causes a rise in blood sugar. 
  • Acromegaly- Production of too much growth hormone. 
  • Hyperthyroidism- Production of too much thyroid hormone. 
6. Damage to or removal of Pancreas
Pancreatic cancer and trauma can all harm the pancreas, the beta cells, or make them less able to produce insulin resulting in diabetes. 
Removal of the damaged pancreas will result in diabetes. 

7. Medicines- Some medicines can harm beta cells or disrupt the working of insulin. 
  • Niacin Vitamin B3
  • Diuretics (water pills) 
  • Anti-seizure drugs and Psychiatric drugs
  • Drugs used to treat human immunodeficiency virus
  • Pentamidine- A drug used to treat a type of pneumonia
  • Glucocorticoids- Medicines used to treat Inflammatory illnesses, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, asthma, lupus, and ulcerative colitis.
  • Anti-rejection medicines- used to help stop the body from rejecting a transplanted organ
  • Statin- used to lower LDL (Low-Density Lipid) bad cholesterol levels can slightly increase the chance that you will develop diabetes. However, statins help protect you from heart disease and stroke. 

Chances of developing type 2 diabetes depend upon a combination of risk factors such as your genes and lifestyle. We can change lifestyle risk factors only which is in our own control.

Risk Factors-

1) Overweight
2) age above 45
3) High BP
4) Low level of HDL (High-Density Lipid - good cholesterol)
5) High level of triglycerides or high level of LDL (Low-density Lipid)
6) Have a history of gestational diabetes
7) Have a history of heart disease or stroke
8) Have depression
9) PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)
10) Have Acanthosis Nigerians- Dark thick velvety skin around your neck or armpits
11) Any medicines

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